When we talk about the technological developments in the 21st century, then no doubt we must mention Artificial intelligence. Is that word new to you? If it is then you’re in luck. In this article you will learn these;

  1. What is Artificial intelligence?
  2. Types of Artificial intelligence.
  3. Applications of Artificial intelligence.
  4. Artificial intelligence – Under Scrutiny.

Lets now discuss them one after the other

What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. The term may also be applied to any machine that exhibits traits associated with a human mind such as learning and problem-solving. Sometimes artificial intelligence is called machine intelligence.

Some leading artificial intelligence textbooks define the field as the study of “intelligent agents”.The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalize and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specific goal. Therefore artificial intelligence is based on the principle that human intelligence can be defined in a way that a machine can easily mimic it and execute tasks, from the most simple to those that are even more complex.

The goals of AI include learning, reasoning, representation, planning, learning, natural language ,processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.General intelligence is among the field’s long-term goals.

Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic artificial intelligence. Many tools are used in artificial intelligence, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The artificial intelligence field draws upon computer science, information engineering, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many others.

As  technology advances in the 21st century, previous benchmarks that defined AI become outdated. For example, machines that calculate basic functions or recognize text through optimal character recognition are no longer considered to embody artificial intelligence, since this function is now taken for granted as an inherent computer function.

Artificial intelligence is continuously evolving to benefit many different industries. Machines are wired using a cross-disciplinary approach based in mathematics, computer science, linguistics, psychology, and more.Algorithms often play a very important part in the structure of AI, where simple algorithms are used in simple applications, while more complex ones help frame strong AI.

In the 21st century, artificial intelligence techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, and theoretical understanding; and artificial intelligence techniques have become an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research.

SEE ALSO : Is Agility the key to technology Innovation?

Types of Artificial intelligence.

Although artificial intelligence is divided into two categories – weak and stong, there are basically 3 types of artificial intelligence;

  1. Artificial Narrow Intelligence ( ANI)
  2. Artificial General Intelligence ( AGI )
  3. Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)Lets look into them

Artificial Narrow Intelligence ( ANI. )

It is a stream of intelligence which is prominent in performing a single task with smartness. The intelligence learns about a single task which it has to perform efficiently and with smartness (intelligently). It is considered to be a basic concept of artificial intelligence.
Examples
Speech Recognition ( can only recognize speech )

Voice Assistants i.e Cortana, Alexa ( only act upon voice commands which perform a certain action )

Artificial General Intelligence ( AGI )
As the name suggests, it is general-purpose. Its smartness/efficiency could be applied to do various tasks as well as learn and improve itself. It is comparatively as intelligent as the human brain. Unlike ANI, it can learn and improve itself to perform various tasks.
Example
Alpha- Go, though only able to play Go, but its intelligence could be applied in various other fields.
Research is being carried out to obtain AGI.

Artificial Super Intelligence ( ASI )

Artificial Super Intelligence is an aspect of intelligence which is more powerful and sophisticated than a human’s intelligence. Human’s intelligence is considered to be one of the most capable and developmental. Super intelligence can surpass human intelligence, it can think about abstractions which are impossible for humans to think. The human brain is made of neurons and is thereby constrained to some billion neurons. Basically, artificial super intelligence is something scientist believe will happen in the future. Documents say, artificial super intelligence is a term referring to the time when the capability of computers will surpass humans. Artificial super intelligence goes a step beyond, and pictures a world in which a computer’s cognitive ability is superior to a human’s.

Applications of Artificial intelligence

 

Artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence – its application

The applications for artificial intelligence are endless. The technology can be applied to many different sectors and industries. AI is being tested and used in the healthcare industry for dosing drugs and different treatment in patients, and for surgical procedures in the operating room.

Other examples of machines with AI include computers that play chess and self-driving cars. Each of these machines must weigh the consequences of any action they take, as each action will impact the end result. In chess, the end result is winning the game. For self-driving cars, the computer system must account for all external data and compute it to act in a way that prevents a collision.

Artificial intelligence also has applications in the financial industry, where it is used to detect and flag activity in banking and finance such as unusual debit card usage and large account deposits—all of which help a bank’s fraud department. Applications for AI are also being used to help streamline and make trading easier. This is done by making supply, demand, and pricing of securities easier to estimate.

SEE ALSO: What is Augumented Reality?

Artificial Intelligence – Under Scrutiny

Since its beginning, artificial intelligence has come under scrutiny from scientists and the public alike. One common theme is the idea that machines will become so highly developed that humans will not be able to keep up and they will take off on their own, redesigning themselves at an exponential rate.

Another is that machines can hack into people’s privacy and even be weaponized. Other arguments debate the ethics of AI and whether intelligent systems such as robots should be treated with the same rights as humans.
Self-driving cars have been fairly controversial as their machines tend to be designed for the lowest possible risk and the least casualties. If presented with a scenario of colliding with one person or another at the same time, these cars would calculate the option that would cause the least amount of damage.

Another contentious issue many people have with AI is how it may affect human employment. With many industries looking to automate certain jobs through the use of intelligent machinery, there is a concern that people would be pushed out of the workforce. Self-driving cars may remove the need for taxis and car-share programs, while manufacturers may easily replace human labor with machines, making people’s skills more obsolete.

In Conclusion
The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has shown an upward trend of growth in the 21st Century (2000 to 2020). The evolution in artificial intelligence has advanced the development of human society in our own time, and its dramatic revolution has shaped both theories and techniques. Artificial intelligence is fascinating and learning more about this technological innovation is even more so.

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